What is Yarn How is it Made and Characteristics of Yarn

What is Yarn How is it Made:

Here we will know about what is yarn how is it made in two segment. In first half we will know about what is yarn and then we will know about how is yarn made? You can use jump content index section to jump into What is Yarn How is it Made.

What is Yarn?

Yarn is a continuous strand of fibers. That’s the most straightforward way to put it. It’s a constant stretch of interlocked fibers that are used to create garments, as well as crocheting, weaving, embroidery, and rope making. This means that we can divide yarn into two distinct “categories.”

Embroidery thread and sewing machine thread, as well as threads used in crafts like knitting and crocheting, are all long lengths purchased as yarns. A Fabric, which is then knitted or spun into cloth, is an alternative. Rather than buying the thread individually, the wool is obtained as cloth in lengths. This is the second description we’ll look at in more details in What is Yarn How is it Made and Characteristics of Yarn.

How is yarn made?

Cotton, worsted or long-staple yarn, and wool are the three primary spinning methods. All of these techniques can be used to produce synthetic staple fibers. The cotton process is listed further down since it produces more yarn than the other two.

what is yarn how is it made
Fig: Yarn Manufacturing Steps

1. Preparing the fibers

Fibers are delivered in bales, which are manually or mechanically opened. Natural fibers can need to be cleaned, but synthetic fibers only need to be separated. The picker loosens and removes the fibers lumps, as well as cleaning them if possible.

Specific applications can necessitate the mixing of various staple fibers. Blending may take place during the forming of the lap, carding, or drawing out. The quantities of each fiber are meticulously calculated, and their proportions are maintained continuously.

2. Carding and Combing

Hundreds of fine wires are used in the carding system to isolate the fibers and drag them into a somewhat parallel fashion. A thin web of fiber is formed, and as it travels along, it passes through a funnel-shaped device, resulting in a ropelike strand of parallel threads. Blending can be accomplished by combining laps with various fibers.

Fibers are subjected to a more paralleling process when a smoother, finer yarn is desired. Short fibers come out of the strand as a result of a comb-like system that arranges threads into parallel shapes.

3. Drawing out

The fiber mass after carding or combing is referred to as the sliver. Before this step, several slivers are mixed. The sliver is elongated into a single more uniform strand by a series of rollers spinning at varying speeds before being fed into large cans with a slight amount of twist. During carding, slivers are drawn twice.

4. Twisting

The sliver is fed into a mechanism called a roving frame, which lengthens and twists the fiber strands. The roving is the term for these strands.

5. Spinning

Ring spinning and open-end spinning are the two most popular commercial yarn forming processes. The roving is fed from the spool using rollers in ring spinning. The roving, which passes through the eyelet and continues down, is elongated by these rollers.

The sliver is fed into a mechanism called a roving frame, which lengthens and twists the fiber strands. Ring spinning and open-end spinning are the two most popular commercial yarn forming processes. The roving move is skipped in open-end spinning as well as via the traveler.

The traveler rotates at a rate of 4,000 to 12,000 revolutions per minute around the stationary ring. The bobbin is rotated at a steady speed by the spindle. The yarn is twisted and wound in one operation as a result of the traveler’s movement.

After knowing about what is yarn and how is it made we will know about the characteristics of yarn, types of yarn, difference between yarn and thread. And lastly what is yarn used for?

Characteristics of Yarn

Fabric handle, sensorial convenience, aesthetic, and performance properties are all influenced by fabric surface properties. Fabric surface properties are affected by yarn properties, which are one of the most important parameters. The properties of the yarns used to make textile fabrics and garments have a significant impact on their efficiency. Specific yarn properties are needed for sewing threads.

  • Regularity: Only very regular yarns can be used to sew smooth fabrics. This is accomplished in spun yarns by doubling and drafting several times, as well as combing out the short fibers.
  • Strength: Yarn strength is determined by the consistency of the fibers, the regularity of the yarn, and the loop. Folding increases the strength of the material.
  • Hardness: Twist density influences the hardness of a thread and, as a result, the handle and shape of textiles.
  • Extensibility: When it comes to yarn processing, and use, elasticity, and extensibility are crucial. They are primarily determined by the fiber type and spinning mechanism.

Types of yarn

  1. Single yarn: Single strands of thread, also known as one-ply yarns, are made up of fibers bound together by at least a slight amount of curl. They’re used to produce the most diverse range of fabrics.
  2. Ply yarns: Yarns that are plied, plied, or folded are made up of two or more single yarns woven together. Two-ply yarn is made up of two single strands, while the three-ply yarn is made up of three single strands.
  3. Cord yarns: Ply yarns are twisted together to make cord yarns, with the final twist added in the reverse direction of the ply twist. Cable cords will take either an SZS or a ZSZ shape, with S-twisted singles turned into Z-twisted plies and then paired with an S-twist.
  4. Novelty yarns: Novelty yarns are manufactured with special effects like slabs, which are created by purposely adding tiny lumps in the yarn construction, and synthetic yarns with different thicknesses added during manufacturing.
  5. Textured yarns: Texturing was initially used to minimize properties like transparency, lubricity, and peeling of synthetic fibers. Texturing improves the look and texture of the yarns while also increasing temperature and absorption.
  6. Stretch yarns: Stretch yarns are typically continuous-filament synthetic yarns that have been tightly twisted, heat-set, and then untwisted to create a spiral crimp with a springy character. While the bulk is added during the process, producing yarn with both bulk and stretch necessitates a large amount of twist.
  7. Metallic yarns: Metallic yarns are commonly manufactured from strips of plastic film covered with metallic particles, such as polyester. Aluminum foil strips are sandwiched between layers of film in another form.

You may like also: What is Fibre and Fabric? Difference between Fibre and Fabric

Difference between yarn and thread

Difference between yarn and thread
Fig: Difference between yarn and thread

Table: Different between yarn and thread

SL No.YarnThread
01.The yarn consists of one or more plies.Thread always has more than one ply.
02.It normally uses in weaving and knitting.It mostly uses in sewing clothes and in needlework.
03.All yarn is not thread.But All thread is yarn.
04.The yarns have less elongation and strengthThread has more elongation and strength than yarns.
05.Usually, yarns are sold in a bigger package.Thread is normally sold in a smaller package.
06.Yarns are produced by the spinning textile fiber together.Thread is obtained by twisting two or more piles of yarn together.
Difference between yarn and thread

What is yarn used for?

For example, yarn may be used to make dishcloths, towels, dish draining pads, sink liners, hot plates or trivets (wool is best), pot holders, glass cozy, and cutting board mats, and more in the kitchen.

Yarn is also used in our daily wear. Hats, scarves, shawls, jackets, sweaters, slips, bras, lingerie, stockings, slippers, gloves, handbags, hankies, ties, long trousers, shorts, swimming suits, and other items can be made with yarn.

Building padding, rugs, pillows, blankets, walls, curtains, and other soft items are on the list for homes (due to all the heavy bits of furniture). Yarn can be used to make almost anything soft (and is). Thread is a types of fabric, so keep that in mind.

What is Yarn How is it Made 
Reference Book: Yasir Nawab (Ed.)
Textile Engineering
De Gruyter Textbook

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