What is Count in Textile?

Shamima Akter Riya

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To explain the quality of a textile fabric, we must first refer to the count and construction of the fabric. Here, count means the yarn count, and by construction, it means the number of warp yarns and weft yarns used in one inch of fabric. 

Image: What is Count in Textile

So, What is Count in Textile? Count is a numerical term that indicates the fineness or coarseness of the yarn. In other words,  the mass per unit length of yarn or the length per unit mass is called count. In the textile industry, the count expresses how fine or coarse the yarn is.

Types of Yarn Count

We already have an idea of ​​what the count is. Various methods can measure yarn count.  Among them, two methods are mainly used. One is the Indirect system, and the other is the Direct system.

Image: Types of Yarn Count
Image: Types of Yarn Count

The above two types of yarn count are explained in the below:

Indirect System 

In an indirect system, Count is measured as the length of yarn in one unit weight. The general feature of all indirect count systems is the weight of the yarn fixed, and the size of the yarn varies according to its fineness. Thus, the higher the count, the finer the yarn. The system is generally used for cotton, worsted, linen (wet spun), etc. 

For the Indirect system Used formula,

N = (L × w) / ( l × W)

Where,

N = count

L = length of yarn

l = unit of length

W = weight of yarn

w = unit of weight

Some Indirect count systems are described below-

  • English Cotton Count (Ne): The English cotton count is also referred to as Number English or Ne, and it’s an indirect system of determining the size of a specific cotton yarn. In the English cotton count system, yarn count is measured by calculating the total number of hanks of 840 yards in one pound of yarn.

For example, 50 Ne count means that 50 hanks ( one hank = 840 yards length of yarn) are present in 1 lb or 1 pound of wool. In other words, if the yarn count is 50 Ne, it means that 50 hanks (840 yards) of that yarn will weigh 1 pound.

Image: English Cotton Count (Ne)
Image: English Cotton Count (Ne) Formula

The following formula is used to calculate yarn count in an indirect system :

English Count (Ne)= Length(yds) × 1 pound / 840 yds × weight(pound)

  • Metric Yarn Count (Nm): Metric yarn count is specified by the total number of hanks of 1000 meter yarn present in 1 kilogram. So, it indicates how many hanks of 1000 meters can be obtained from 1000 grams or 1 kilogram of yarn. This system refers to the numerical expression that shows how defined or coarse a yarn is. The yarn becomes finer when the metric count increases. It is usually used to indicate the cotton and flax yarn count. The metric count of yarn is calculated by given below method: 

Metric Count = Length(m) × 1 kg / 1000 m × Weight(kg)

Image: Metric Yarn Count (Nm)
Image: Metric Yarn Count (Nm)
  • Worsted Count (NeK): Worsted count is an indirect indication of the fineness of the fiber in a worsted wool yarn described as the number of 560-yard length hanks of worsted yarn present in 1 pound of the yarn. It is broadly used for yarn constituted by wool. For a higher count, the fineness of the yarn is higher. 
Image: Worsted Count (NeK)
Image: Worsted Count (NeK)

For example, If (10×560) yards length of yarn is one pound, then its count is 10. The formula for the worsted count is given below :

Worsted count = (Length in yards) / (560 x weight in pound)

Direct System 

In a direct system, the count is constructed on the number of weight units in a length unit. This system is mainly used to measure the count of artificial fiber. The general feature of the direct count method is that the length of the yarn is fixed, and the weight of the yarn varies according to its fineness. Direct count is used for very fine and very coarse yarns. This system is mainly used for yarns like silk, jute, etc. For Direct system Used formula,

N = (W × l) / (w × L)

Where,

N = count

L = length of yarn

l = unit of length

W = weight of yarn

w = unit of weight

Some Direct count systems are described below-

1. Tex: Tex gives the weight in grams per 1000 meters of yarn. It can be described as the weight in 1000 meters of yarn in grams where the length of the yarn is fixed. For example, if there are 10 grams of yarn per 1000 meters of yarn, that indicates 10 tex. The following formula is used to calculate the Tex count in the direct system :

Tex count = (Weight gm×1000 m) / (1 gm×Length m)

Image: Tex count
Image: Tex count

2. Denier: Denier is another direct measure of linear density. Weight in grams per 9000 m of yarn is called denier. It is mainly used for man-made yarns. 

For example, yarn count 10 Denier means that there are 10 gm of yarn per 9000 m of that yarn. 

In this system, the lower the count, the finer the yarn. For example, 20 denier yarn is much finer than 50 denier yarn.

Image: Denier count
Image: Denier count

The following formula is used to calculate the Denier count in the direct system :

Denier count = (Weight gm × 9000 m) / (1gm × Length m)

3. Pound per spindle/jute count: Jute count is the weight in pounds per spindle of 14400 yards. This system is commonly used for jute, hemp, or dry spun-linen yarn.

For example, a yarn count of 10 Pounds per Spyndle means that 14400 m of that yarn will weigh 10 lbs.

Image: Pound per spindle or jute count
Image: Pound per spindle or jute count

The following formula is used to calculate the Jute count in the direct system :

Pound per spindle or Jute count = (Weight pound × 14000 yds) / (1 pound × Length yds)

4. Decitex (dtex): The weight in grams of 10000 meters of yarn is called Decitex, a metric unit used to determine yarns’ linear density or fineness. It’s mainly used for continuous filament yarn.

For example, 10 dtex means 10 g per 10,000 m yarn.

The following formula is used to calculate Decitex in a direct system :

Decitex(dtex) = (10000 × weight in grams) / (Length in meters)

Image: Decitex (dtex)
Image: Decitex (dtex)

5. MiliTex (mTex): In the miliTex system, the count is the weight in milligrams of 1000 m of yarn.

For instance, a yarn count of 10 milliTex means that there are 10 milligrams of yarn per 1000 m of that yarn.

The following formula is used to calculate Milliitex in a direct system :

Millitex(mtex) = (1000 × weight in milligrams) / (length in meters)

Image: MiliTex (mTex)
Image: MiliTex (mTex)

6. Kilotex (ktex): In the kilotex system, count is the weight in kilograms of 1000 m of yarn. 

For example, 20 kilotex means 1000 meters in length in 20 kilograms of weight.

The following formula is used to calculate kilotex in a direct system :

Kilotex (ktex) = (1000 × weight in kilograms) / (length in meters)

Image: Kilotex (ktex)
Image: Kilotex (ktex)

Conclusion

Yarn count is a very important subject in textile engineering.  But even those with the highest degrees in textiles are often seen having trouble with counts.  One of the main reasons for this is that the language of the textbooks we try to learn about counts does not maturely enter our heads.  Instead of focusing on traditional textbooks, if we consider only one subject by criteria, the matter becomes much more straightforward.  So, considering everything, the above article is written in simple language, and I hope everyone benefits.

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