What is Damask Fabric?
Damask fabric refers to the grouped woven fabrics constructed on a jacquard loom. It is nothing but a solid color patterned fabric. It distinguishes from other fabrics based on luster contrast.
Damask fabric is unique for its nature of intricate and reversibility. The fiber content of this damask fabric can be silk-made, wool-made, and cotton-made. This fabric is of interest due to its durability and lustrous effect.
This fabric has a jacquard weave construction. Besides, this fabric has a patterned appearance that makes it exquisite. Damask fabric is an intricate fabric with reversible patterns.
|Fabric name||acquard Weave Construction. The fiber content of the fabric is silk, linen, cotton, and wool.|
|Fiber content||The fiber content of the fabric is silk, linen, cotton, and wool.|
|Fabric structure||Weave/Knit Structure: The jacquard head works on the loom. It enables the warp control threads through cards use punched with holes. It also offers the weaver to create pattern repeats. Each pick passage creates intricate designs and controls the warp. |
Benefits: Printed pattern.Durable and lightweight.Breathable.It has better Drapery. Reversible.
Disadvantages: Relatively thick.Prone to abrasion.Costly to Make.
|Yarn structure||The yarn structure is filament yarn in nature. It has a continuous strand. The fabric is jacquard patterned. However, the filament yarn makes the fabric smooth and reversible. Also, the yarn is lustrous and does not pill readily.|
|Coloration stage||In the 5th stage of the dyeing process, coloration occurs. It occurs by a mixing method at a high temperature.|
|Finishes||One of the finishes is filling. Each warp and weft yarn makes up filling and a It may have more than one filling. As well as there are bleaching, and glazing finishes that enhance the appearance of the fabric. Also, the finishes help to improvise the performance of the fabric.|
How is Damask Fabric made?
Damask has two ways of making. The first one is well-known as traditional weaving. In this section, the filling and damask piece consists of more than one filling. Here, the warp passes over 9 fillings. Moreover, there is a making of satin and Sateen fields.
Another way is popular as “Computerized Jacquard Loom,” where the same principle is used. A robotic arm works, not weavers. Weaving damask fabric is quite challenging. It takes a week to weave. Now, computer-programmed looms make things easier.
The damask fabric has both natural and artificial fibers. These fibers are woven in a combined sateen weave. The weaves are warp-faced and weft-faced. This fabric has gained popularity since the golden days of byzantine and Arabia.
The history of damask context is enriched. Since the damask fabric has a connection with the middle east, it is already popular in the textile industry. Textile is constantly maintaining the same production method. That is the technique of weaving. There are two weaving techniques. Using a single wrap and weft thread. Another is woven design by using a satin weave (MasterClass, 2021).
Textile has usually followed traditional weaving. But computer-based program makes the process of weaving easier. There are no such changes in the fiber choices. But fiber techniques come first before fiber choices. The historical context is enriched in nature. This textile has a connection with the middle east, and it gets popularity after that. There are two weaving techniques. The use of a single wrap and weft thread. Another technique is using a satin weave.
The fiber content of the damask fabric is silk, linen, cotton, and wool. There are also synthetic fibers, for example, Rayon. Here, the fabric is woven in the aspects of all fiber types. However, because of the jacquard weaving, it has a complex in-design woven. It has design repeats with tapestry effects. But there is an enormous different between damask vs jacquard fabric.
To control individual warps, this weave is woven on a loom. It has a jacquard attachment as well (Anon., n.d.). One of the disadvantages of having this Jacquard method is that the fabric is costly to make and not stretchable. Besides, due to the synthetic fabric, washing at high temperatures will not be suitable. However, the advantages of this damask fabric are (Anon., n.d.).
The yarns used in this fabric can be both filament and staple spun. But, from its appearance, it is estimated that the fabric has synthetic filament yarns. Synthetic yarns have wide-ranging applications in embroidery, sewing, and weaving (Anon., n.d.). Jacquard loom helps to make things easy for being automated. In the 5th stage, coloration occurs by the mixing method at a high temperature. According to the requirement, temperatures increase (Patwary, 2012).
Since the fabric is jacquard-weaved, the pattern remains woven in the fabric. Damask’s finishes can be a firm texture and high luster (Anon., n.d.). These finishes are significant to make the fabric durable and reversible. Besides, a finishing name, mercerizing, remains permanent on cotton products. It also makes the fabric smooth and glossy (Anon., n.d.).
|Fabric Specification Information|
|Fabric Name||Damask Fabric|
|Fabric Visual Representation (Technical Front) Fabric Visual Representation (Technical Back)||White-colored floral design (Front and Back)|
|Fiber Content||Silk, wool, linen, cotton|
|Yarn Structure (Warp and Weft if the Fabric is woven)||1 warp yarn and 1 weft yarn.|
|Fabric Construction||Jacquard Weave Construction|
|Fabric Weight (g/m2)||N/A|
|Type of Fabric Treatment/Coloration||White|
|Suggested end Uses||Gowns, Tablecloths, napkins, scarves, and wallpapers.|
a. SERVICEABILITY CONCEPTS
|Luster||The damask fabric with jacquard weave is lustrous. It is white colored and has a glossy appearance. Otherwise, the fabric has a moderate wrinkle tendency that is removable.|
|Opacity||According to the fabric opacity rating, this fabric has the maximum degree of opaqueness. That means the fabric is not much see-through. The fabric feels soft and smoother.|
|Texture||The floral texture is thick and resilient.|
|Color||The fabric color is white and is not prone to creasing.|
|Hand||While touching the fabric, the hand feels soft and pleasant to touch.|
|Resilience||Based on the fiber, weave pattern, and filament yarns, it is assumable that the fabric is resilient in nature.|
|Pilling propensity||Yet, the fibers are susceptible to pilling. The fiber strength is durable on the other hand. But this woven fabric does not tend to pill readily. Since the clothes are cotton-made, they tend to develop pills.|
|Snagging propensity||Snagging propensity is something when the fabric gets pulled, plucked, and scratched. The damask fabric with a jacquard weave shows better-snagging resistance. The texture holds the tightness. It is not as much as prone to pilling.|
|Other comments||The damask fabric is piled not sheer. As a result, handwashing with providing greater care to the fabric. Machine washing can gently set the spin cycle.|
The damask fabric is white-colored and has a glossy appearance. It does not stretch much. Besides, the fabric has a moderate wrinkle tendency. Steam on cotton may remove any wrinkles quickly. The fabric is single-colored, and hence it is durable in nature.
From the physical properties of the damask fabric, we can say that the fabric is lightweight. A shimmery brightness is there in which light reflects the surface. Besides, it has an opaque design on a single side of the fabric. The degree of opaqueness is 5, which is the maximum (Anon., n.d.).
The color of the fabric is as white as snow. The hand feels soft and smoother. Also, it is non-creased. The fabric’s resilience is moderate based on fiber, yarns, and jacquard fabric construction. Because of the jacquard weave, the fabric becomes resilient and pleasant to touch. The chemical structure of damask fabric hints to us that the fibers are susceptible to pilling.
Since the fiber strength is much more durable, the pilling scope is also greater. It depends on the fabric whether the damask is prone to pilling or not. Snagging propensity defines the fiber and yarn drawn away from the fabric surface. It reduces the appearance of fabrics. The jacquard weave shows a better snagging resistance because the texture holds the tightness.
Although the fabric seems not to be prone to pilling, it is important to keep in mind that handwashing can avoid pilling. If we machine wash the fabric, we must gently set the spin cycle.
b. COMFORT PROPERTIES
|Thermal resistance||The heat retention abilities of damask fabric depend on the type of fabric and the ability to resist heat flow. But in the case of the linen material, the damask fabric is relevant to medium to low heat.|
|Moisture management||Damask fabric is not breathable in the case of synthetic materials. But natural damasks are more breathable and moisture-wicking. It resists water penetration. Also, the fabric tends to be hydrophobic.|
|Sensorial comfort prickliness, roughness, thermal character warm or cool, electrical conductivity||There is no roughness in this fabric, rather it is reversible. Moreover, the fabric is not extensively warm or cool.|
|Body movement comfort Stretch, weight, and compression||The damask fabric is comfortable but not stretchable. The weight of fabric is heavy and thick.|
Damask fabric’s heat retention abilities depend on the fabric used there (Sewport support team, n.d.). Besides, thermal resistance depends on the ability to resist heat flow. The heat retention ability is moderate in the case of damask fabric. Because of the synthetic fiber of its look, the fabric is flammable. However, synthetic damask is not breathable compared to natural ones.
Since synthetic fiber tends to be hydrophobic, the damask fabric resists water penetration (Ken Knapp, n.d.). Sensorial comforts depend on prickliness, warmth or coolness, and roughness. In the case of damask fabric, there is no roughness. Because the fabric is reversible. Hence, the damask is famous for tablecloths. The damask fabric is not extensively warm or cool. Rather, the cotton-made damask fabric is comfortable to wear. According to the damask fabric, it is not stretchable. The weight is heavy and thick.
c. DURABILITY PROPERTIES
|Strength||The damask fabric with jacquard weave is strong in case of heavy uses. The weaving pattern is tight, and it tends to be water-resistant. Because of its durability, the fabric applies to decorative and homely materials. Also, damask fabric tends to deform from its previous shape.|
|Elasticity||Elasticity refers to the stretching results of fabric to a maximum degree where there will not be any deformation. Damask fabric does not deform much. As a result, the fabric is not elastic. There is no such stretchability that makes the fabric changeable.|
|Abrasion resistance||The damask fabric is abrasion resistant. To identify whether it is abrasion-resistant or not, the fabric must be gone through abrasion tests. The abrasion resistance of the damask fabric mostly works against chemical damage.|
The dry strength of this damask fabric is high. It has high tensile strength in the case of both dry and wet. The fabric is washable at 60 degrees Celsius. Also, at low temperatures, the fabric needs to tumble dry. Fabric elasticity means the maximum elongation without any deformation. Elasticity determines whether the fabric has better durability or not.
It differs from stretchability because, under any load, the fabric tends to deform from its previous shape. The damask fabric with Jacquard construction is not elastic much. But the quality of synthetic fiber of damask fabric is superior. The fabric is reversible. It is wearable from both sides. There are resistance tests to identify whether a fabric is abrasion-resistant. The appearance of the white damask fabric seems comfortable. Here, the white damask fabric is abrasion resistant. The resistance against chemical damage mostly (Textile School, 2018).
d. MAINTENANCE PROPERTIES:
|Garment Care||Damask garments made of wood fibers require hand washing and dry cleaning. In the case of garment care, there should be a correct ironing temperature. Pressing on the other part will prevent the fabric from flattening (Estep, 2021).|
Damask fabrics require hand washing treatment using a delicate cycle. Besides, the fabric is washable using cold water with mild detergent. While using the fabric in the delicate cycle, the damask fabric must be placeable in a mesh laundry bag. This laundry bag will help to avoid snagging (Leverette, 2021).
Taking care of the damask fabric is difficult compared to others. However, the Jacquard weave makes the fabric the shiniest. The best advantage of this fabric is it is reversible. The fabric tends to be thick and heavy with a blend of patterned weaving. The applications of damask fabric are many: Apparel, wallpaper, and accessories. Overall, the fabric stands out as lustrous because of its usage in daily life.
In the case of Damask fabric’s application, it confirms that there is an inclusive application. For instance, table covers, décor items, clothes, sheets, and curtains, are the main usages of this fabric (Marie, n.d.). The significance of the Damask fabric depends on its impact. The impact of damask fabric may be biodegradable or not.
The glory that Damask leaves behind has significance in the textile industry. However, the common application of damask fabrics is table runners, handbags, tapestries, and rugs. Unfortunately, being a significant fiber, damask has nothing to avoid the environmental impact of synthetic fiber. The challenging part is to use the toxic dyes in the post-production time.
The advantageous side of the damask fabric is the silk material. For silkworms, this fabric has become a luxurious item of all time.
Moreover, It is reasonably breathable compared to other artificial ones. It has heat retention ability and stretchability. The chosen white damask fabric is prone to washing at high temperatures (Sewport Support Team, n.d.).
The damask fabric indeed loses its previous dignity. Yet, it is very cheap and challenging to make damask today. In today’s textile industry, damask fabric with Jacquard weave may have to gain popularity for being a cultural artifact (Sewport Support Team, n.d.).
The future of damask fabric depends on its effect on the environment. If silk or wool-made damask is available, it may become unsustainable for the environment. In the case of organic cotton, the damask stands first. On the other hand, the rich appearance and heavyweight of damask fabric will make sure its popularity in the present context.
In today’s textile industry, Damask fabric with Jacquard weave may need to gain popularity through a cultural artifact. The future of this textile depends on its effects on the environment. The silk made Damask get unsustainable. But Organic Cotton stands ahead. The damask fabric’s appearance and weight will ensure its popularity.
Although Jersey fabric requires synthetic fibers, it becomes eco-unsustainable in this regard. But jersey made of wool or cotton makes the environment sustainable. In the case of textiles, this single jersey fabric is reputed in the industry for being warm and stretchy. It is unforeseen that the t-shirt industry will get damaged shortly.
Taking care of the damask fabric is difficult compared to others. However, the Jacquard weave makes the fabric the shiniest. The best advantage of this fabric is it is reversible. The fabric tends to be thick and heavy with a blend of patterned weaving. The applications of damask fabric are many: Apparel, wallpaper, and accessories. Overall, the fabric stands out as lustrous because of its
References (RMIT Harvard)
- Estep,E, 2021, How to Care for Damask Linens and Clothes, The Spruce, < https://www.thespruce.com/care-for-damask-linens-and-clothes-2146313>
- Sewport Support Team, 2022, What is Damask Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where, Sewport, < https://sewport.com/fabrics-directory/damask-fabric>
- Patwary E.M.Z., 2012, Flow chart o Yarn Spinning Process, Textile Fashion Study, < Flow Chart Of Jute Yarn Spinning Process | Batching To Winding | Textile Fashion Study>
- Ken Knapp, What Does Moisture-Wicking Mean? Rei Coop, < https://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/what-does-moisture-wicking-mean.html>