Fabrics are nothing but yarn-made whereas the fibers make up yarns to form fabrics. Read more to explore newer dynamics of fiber to yarn and yarn to fabric.
What is ‘Fiber to Yarn to Fabric?’
To discuss the fiber to yarn and yarn to fabric, we must define them from the lens of the textile industry. Fibers are thread-like thin and flexible structures that spun into yarns. Yarns are spun threads used for knitting and weaving. Meanwhile, fabric is a game-changer, that ultimately refers to the woven material made of yarns. Fabric is well-structured from twisted threads named yarn that help you to weave or knit any project. If we explore a more detailed view, we see the following information:
Can be a natural or man-made substance that is long and wide. It is useful in manufacturing other materials. Fibers are nothing but clothing cornerstones.
Yarn and fibers are linked up with chains and other links. It is an intertwined or locked version of more than 1 fiber.
Raw materials that help in processing clothes. In fabric, you are likely to see visible loose yarns by pulling them out using a needle. Entire yarns or threads can be pulled out from the cotton fabric piece.
Different Types of Fiber, Yarn, and Fabric for Garment Making
Types define how fibers, yarns, and fabrics are available in different forms. Ensuring sustainability cannot be possible without the unique types and functions to make any garment. Different types of fiber to yarn to the fabric are shared here in the following:
Types of Fibers: 2 Categories
Fibers are well-categorized in two forms. They are:
1. Natural Fibers
Natural fibers have a source in animals, mineral fibers, and plants. Thanks to different factors that shape these natural fibers in a variety of stages to increase their growth and extraction. Natural fibers tend to be absorbent, comfortable, and a bit wrinkle-based but cool to wear. Cotton, Jute, Wool, Linen, and Silk are a few examples of natural fibers.
2. Man-Made Fibers
Man-made fibers are synthetic ones produced chemically. These fibers are created through manufacturing processes of any substance, not related to fibers. For instance: Viscose Rayon, Acetate, Acrylic, Aramid and polyimide, Carbon, graphite, etc.
Types of Yarns: 2 Categories
Yarns are well-classified widely into 2 categories. They are:
1. Spun Yarn:
Spun yarn is a staple fiber made that is available in twist formation. According to spun yarn, the number of piles gets to be determined.
2. Filament Yarn
Filament yarn refers to the long continuous filaments that get twisted together.
Types of Fabrics: 3 Categories
The main three categories of fabrics are the following:
1. Woven Fabric
This fabric is well-made using the weaving process and there is the help of a loom. Here, loom is available in the market in both manual/hand, or the power loom. Also, 2 types of yarn help make woven fabrics: Warp yarn and weft yarn. They help in accordingly length and width wise.
2. Knitted Fabric
Knitted fabric refers to the knitting process that produces fabrics with the help of crocheting or any kind of knitting machine.
3. Non-Woven Fabric
The non-woven fabric stays together in a felt or bonded fibers mode. These fabrics tend to be lightweight and weak. Examples are cotton, polyester, and rayon. From packing materials to getting materials for road-building or geo-textiles, these fabrics come in great use.
Fiber to Yarn to Fabric: Explore the Differences
Apart from the conceptual differences, a few debated issues are there as well that differ from fiber to yarn to fabric. Check them out in the following comprehensive table summary:
|Subject of Differences
|Natural Synthetic Sources.
|Harvesting For instance: Natural fibers such as wool get harvested from shearing sheep.
|A complete structure or network of either 1 yarn or multiple yarns.
|How Many Plies?
|Ply is the exact number of fibers that exist within a yarn.
|One or many plies
|Single, two-ply, or three-ply. Usually, yarn is twisted together in order to make a single thread.
|Covering enough warmth.
|Weaving or knitting
|Protecting us from any weather; cold or heat.
|Rayon (the synthetic fiber) is one of the examples. It includes nylon, acrylic, and polyester.
|Spun yarn, Boucle yarn, Marl Yarn.
|Fabrics like: Single Jersey, pique, and rib.Woven fabrics: Sanitary napkins, wet wipes.Printed Fabrics: Jacquards.
|Twisting several fiber strands to make yarn.
|Twisting of several yarn turns to make fabric.
|Does not count.
Manufacturing Process of Fiber to Yarn to Fabric
There are steps to follow to turn raw materials into fibers. For instance:
Step 1: Solid raw materials turn into a liquid form using the process of melting or chemical dissolution. Here, raw materials are available in different forms, such as wood, chemical sources, or petroleum.
Step 2: Through a spinneret, the liquid form gets forced to make a thin fiber. That liquid also hardens the filament form, which is a continuous fiber strand.
Step 3: Twisted filaments turn into yarn and get wound onto spools to make clothes.
To Cotton Fabric from Raw Cotton
Two processes turn raw cotton into cotton fabrics. They are none but the Spinning process and the process of Weaving. In the spinning process, raw cotton turns into thread. On the other hand, the weaving process makes the thread woven into fabric. The Spinning process is the most popular. Let’s have a look at the following chart:
Step 1: Mix up and Blow.
Here, the staple fiber goes through the machine of mixing and blowing to get removed from substances to finally turn into a ‘lap.’
Step 2: Process of Carding
In this process, the lap (sheet-shaped) gets separated fibers to get removed from the short fiber length ones and fine dust. Long fibers go through the process of carded silver. This carded silver machine creates a loose form of the web.
Step 3: Process of Combing
The Combing is a process where fibers get arranged parallelly to get a uniform length of combed silver.
Step 4: Process of Drawing
Here, 6-8 silvers get elongated using the drawing machine to remove thickness.
Step 5: Process of Roving
The roving machine elongates the drawn silver to produce yarn.
Step 6: Process of Spinning
Here, the green yarn gets enough thickness. Then, by twisting, the finished yarn gets wound on a bobbin.
Step 7: Process of Winding
It involves rewinding the yarn onto bobbins, then it gets into the cheese.
Step 8: Process of Weaving
Weaving makes the warp thread also the weft yarn to get into a type of fabric. Loom is a creation using a machine to accomplish the desired task.
Step 9: Process of Warping
Here, the warping machine turns to cheese and cones to get the absolute length and the number of yarns.
Step 10: The Sizing
To rewind after the exact size and drying, the warping beams get piled up.
Sustainability in Fibers, Yarns, and Fabrics Developments
Two specific ways have enhanced the sustainability issues in the textile industry. They are no other-the system of close loop and the circular economy of fiber to yarn and yarn to fabric. Textile industries continuously strive for better solutions to meet customers’ demands while maintaining industry standards. These standards include recycling, reduction of waste, and production efficiency.
Moreover, sustainability in these new developments has pushed for saving water with better waste management, and durable procedures. In a Circular Economy, the raw materials go through the production procedure, then they are used by customers in a way that they can be available for recycling. So, anyone can witness the shift from the structure of linear economics (the economy that we have witnessed before, to some extent still now) to the circular economy.
Is there any benefit to Circular Fashion Initiatives?
To answer this question, we must go to the textile production and manufacturing procedures in the industry. For instance:
- Companies can showcase efficient manufacturing processes.
- Emissions, waste, usage of chemicals, and energy come to decrease.
- The credibility of using eco-labels in products is getting higher.
Both closed-loop systems and circular economy encourage textile companies to come up with sustainable solutions for products. It is important to ensure that all the used waste gets fully utilized in the production processes.
So far, we have come to know about fiber, yarn, and fabric where fiber is a thread-like thin strand that makes clothes. On the other hand, yarn is a spun thread that is useful in weaving and knitting fabrics. The last one is the fabric which is a well-made thread network and comes up in an accurate length and width. To make clothes, 3 of them, fiber to yarn and yarn to fabric is interlinked with each other. One cannot think of the textile industry without the contribution of each of them. Sustainability issues are mandatory in this theme to showcase their importance in the circular economy.
Mahedi Hasan, is a Textile Engineer, as well as a Top Rated content writer at Upwork, Level 02 Seller at Fiverr, Level 02 Publisher at Ezoic. A passionate textile ad fashion content writer, fashion SEO expert, and fashion web designer. Having a B.Sc. in Textile Engineering Degree from Textile Engineering College, Noakhali (TECN). Department is Apparel Engineering. Highly Experienced fashion writer for the last 3+ years. Have extensive 7 years of experience on wholesale clothing business.