Complete 5 Textile Manufacturing Process in Details

Md Mahedi Hasan

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Textile manufacturing has been a part of human civilization for centuries. But most people don’t know how it all comes together. It’s time you learned about the textile production process that goes into making your clothes. So, join me as I take you through the entire journey of Textile Fiber to Garments. My name is Mahedi, and I will explain everything from raw materials like cotton or wool to finished apparel products such as T-shirts or dresses.

Get ready to know the details of textile manufacturing, from fiber to garment manufacturing. Simply the whole textile making process.

Textile Manufacturing Process:

  1. Source Fiber: Mainly textile production process begins with the harvesting of raw materials.
  2. Yarn Manufacturing: The fibers are then cleaned, sorted, and blended together to create yarns.
  3. Fabric Manufacturing: Yarn is made into fabric by weaving or knitting it on a loom.
  4. Wet Processing: Fabric is cut into smaller pieces for use in sewing projects and dyed in different colors and patterns.
  5. Garments Manufacturing: Sewing the parts of fabric together and checking Quality Inspection and shipment.
Textile Manufacturing Process Flowchart
Textile Manufacturing Process

1. Source Fiber:

The textile manufacturing process begins with the cultivation or production of textile fiber. Most of the textile fiber comes from natural textile fibers, and the rest comes from man-made fiber. 

Natural Fiber: Harvesting raw fiber and sourcing is the first step in the production of textiles. Fibers are extracted from plant, animal, or mineral sources and processed into a continuous strand called yarn.

The different types of fibers. Such as cotton, linen wool, silk, etc.

Man-made Fiber: Today, man-made or synthetic fibers, such as polyester, rayon, and nylon, are also used in the textile industry processes.

2. Spinning:

Spinning or yarn manufacturing is the textile process of turning raw materials into yarn for use in knitting, weaving, or crocheting. Raw materials are sorted, cleaned, and mixed or blended together to create the final yarn or thread.

Yarn Manufacturing Process of Textile Industry
Spinning or Yarn Manufacturing

What is Yarn How Yarn is made?

Yarn manufacturing is known as the mother of the textile manufacturing process. Mainly Yarn is done by spinning together fibers such as wool, cotton fiber, or synthetic fibers. Yarn manufacturing is the process of turning raw materials into yarn to be used in knitting, weaving, and crocheting.

Main concept of textile processing is always similar.

The first step in yarn manufacturing is raw material preparation. Raw materials must be sorted, cleaned, and mixed together to produce the final textile product.

The cotton is received in bale form in blow room. Blow room creates the lap. The lap supplied to the carding machine and produced carded sliver. The carded sliver passes through the breaker draw frame machine and produces a drawn sliver. Drawn Sliver enters into the finisher draw frame and produces a drawn Sliver. From drawn sliver, simplex machine produced roving. Finally, the yarn came from the ring frame. It is the most common process of producing yarn for textile manufacturing in the usa.

Different wool or cotton producers must remove any debris that might contaminate a batch. Synthetic yarn production is turned into petroleum-based products, such as polyesters, spandex and rayon.

After the raw materials are prepared, they’re spun into yarn in a process called spinning. Spinning is done by using machines with steel bobbins that have been wound with fiber or spinning material known as roving, which can come from natural sources like cotton or wool.

The machine winds the roving around a bobbin and then pulls it between two rollers that turn at different speeds to create the yarn. Some machines can also “twist” in order to add strength and elasticity to the final product.

3. Fabric Manufacturing Process:

The next step is the weaving or fabric manufacturing process. It is done by taking yarn from one machine and transferring it to another machine in order to create a length of fabric. The fabric production process, named weaving is done by machines that turn the yarn into lengths, which are then fed onto a loom with different types of threads or colors on specific sections called harnesses.

Details Fabric Manufacturing Process
Fabric Manufacturing Process

How fabric is made step by step?

The warp (lengths) must be precisely fitted between the two sides of the beams before the loom is turned on and the weaving process begins. Once a length of textile fabric has been created, it’s removed from the looms and finally sewn together to create a finished product!

Fabric processing steps is a process that converts spanned raw materials such as cotton, wool, linen, and silk into fabric. It creates yarns from natural fibers for use in knitting and weaving.

Weaving is done by machines that turn yarn into lengths which are then fed onto a loom with different types of threads or colors on specific sections called harnesses. The warp must be precisely fitted between two sides of heddles before the loom turns on and the weaving process begins. Once a length of fabric has been created, it’s removed from the looms and finally sewn together to create a finished fabric.

4 types of fabric have been produced in the garment industry. Such as:

i. Woven fabric
ii. Knit fabric
iii. Nonwoven Fabric
iv. Braided Fabric

We will know the details one by one in the future.

4. Wet processing:

Fabric wet processing is a process used to dye and finish textiles. The dyeing process involves the application of colorants to fabric for it to become colored. The wet processing process could be elaborated on in some detail. Wet preparatory processes include Fabric Inspection, Stitching, Desizing, Scouring, Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing, and Finishing.

Fabric wet processing process
Fabric wet processing process

Textile Printing

Textile Printing is a branch of local dyeing. It is a method of deposition of color onto the fabric and other textile materials. It includes inkjet printing on fabrics like T-shirts, sweatshirts, aprons, children’s cloth making processes, etc..

Printing is a mechanical and chemical application which used to confine certain portions of fabric that constitute the design. Different types of printing, such as 1) Direct Style, 2) Dyed Style, 3) Discharge Style, 3) Resist, Azoic, and other types of styles are widely used.

Methods of printing could be varied, such as: 1. Block Printing (Hand/Machine) 2. Stencil Printing (Metal/ Screen) 3. Roller Printing 4. Screen Printing (Hand, Flatbed, Rotary) 5. Transfer Printing ( Flatbed/ Continuous/ Vaccum Printing).

Process Flowchart of Printing: Grey Fabric ➡️ Pre-treatment ➡️ Preparation of Printing Paste ➡️Printing ➡️ Drying and Steaming/ Ageing/ Curing ➡️After Treatment

Textile Finishing

Textile Finishing may involve adding additional properties such as anti-pill, soil release, or flame-retardant treatments with different textile auxiliaries. That is chemically applied before packaging and shipping.

It is the process by which properties such as attractiveness, serviceability, luster, smoothness, fineness, and so on are increased in woven or knitted fabric to make it attractive to the consumer is called finishing.

There are several types of textile finishing depending on function application and degree of performance.

Based on FunctionAesthetics/ BasicFunctional/ Special
Fireproof, waterproof, wrinkle resistanceFire retardant, waterproof.
Based on ApplicationWet/ ChemicalRaising, Singeing Calendering
Dry/MechanicalWaterproof, fireproof mercerization.
Based on Degree of PerformancePermanentTemporary
DurableCrease Resistance
Types of finishes used in textile manufacturing.

5. Garment Manufacturing Process

You can watch the reels from the Textile Details YouTube channel to have a quick idea about garment manufacturing process:

Garments Manufacturing Process in Bangladeshi Garments Factory

i. Garments Design:

Garment manufacturing starts from receiving the fabric from a weaving mill. Then manufacturing starts from the Design. The buyer could provide it or need textile design in the designing section. When garments are received from the buyer, garment design starts with the technical sheet. These processes are done manually and automated.

ii. Pattern Making:

According to the garment design, technical sheet, and artwork, the pattern of all garments is made by the pattern master. But today It can be done by an automated machine. The pattern is a hard paper on which to sketch or draw the different components of apparel by standard body measurements. It’s often known as a block pattern or basic block.

a. Sample Making:

After making a perfect pattern, a complete apparel sample is made to testify to the buyer’s requirements. According to the required specification, the sample is approved by the buyer, then it’s called the approved sample. The objective of making a perfect sample is to examine whether the detailed instruction is correct or not for complete apparel production.

b. Production Pattern Making:

The counter sample is made for bulk production, followed by the approved sample. In Production, a pattern takes an additional extra measurement with exact or actual size is known as allowance.

Allowance is essential for bulk production; it could be added manually or by computer. It’s often known as a working pattern. There are many types of allowances, such as cutting allowances, sewing allowances, seam allowances, washing allowances, shrinkage allowances, etc.

c. Grading:

Stepwise increase or decrease of master pattern according to different sizes is called grading. In bulk garments, production grading is an important issue in maintaining the size ratio of the production.

Different sizes of apparel are done according to standard body measurement grading. It’s graded according to the buyer’s instructions. There are two types of grading: 1. Manual Grading (by pattern master) 2. Computerized grading (CAD System).

d. Marker Making:

A marker is a thin piece of paper or fabric that contains every part of the apparel. Marker-making helps to produce the cutting process smoothly. It could be done manually and by using automation.

iii. Fabric Spreading:

Fabric spreading is one of the crucial parts of the garment production process. Specific guidelines are followed during the fabric laying process. Fabric spreading is known as fabric lying.

Learn more about What is Fabric Spreading?

It’s done after a process named fabric relaxing. The main objective of Fabric relaxation is to relax and contract the fabrics. So that it can be ready for the garment production process after the complete fabric manufacturing. It helps to prevent fabric strain at several stages and reduces fabric shrinkage.

The fabric is spread on a long table to cut it properly. Currently, most garment factories spread fabric by automation. But still, it requires skilled manpower to spread fabric properly.

Therefore, any fabric fault from the production line is detected during the cost-effective fabric spreading process.

iv. Fabric Cutting:

Fabric cutting is called the backbone of garment manufacturing. Fabrics need to be cut according to the marker. It is the most essential action in the cutting room. The procedure starts with fabric lying, marking, and then cutting. “Once Fabric is cut, there is no turning back,” as the saying goes.

So, if there are any problems in the cutting, it affects the sewing process. The fabric-cutting process is done with a straight and sharp knife. It could be a manual or computerized automatic cutting system.

i. Cutting Parts Sorting and Bundling:

After the errorless cutting, all parts are sorted out according to the bundle tag.

The bundle tag represents the fabric component bundle to identify the component. It needs to maintain maximum production. In a single garment production process, numbering, sorting, and bundling may not be mandatory. Then, it goes for bundling to send these to start the next process. This process must be done manually.

v. Sewing:

Sewing Process in Garment Manufacturing
Sewing Process in Garment Manufacturing

Sewing is the heart of the garments section. All cutting components of fabric are joined by sewing together. After gathering all components of the garments went to sewing. Today it’s done manually and depends on the worker’s skills.

vi. Garments Inspection and Shipment:

Final Garment inspection is an important part of Quality control or QC. The best QC section represents the best garment factory. After completing apparel or garments, an inspection is made to find out the fault of the garments. It’s done manually. Often, garment factories set a commodity standard to measure production output. QC is the most complicated section where the quality of a garment could be defined by the inspection.

a. Spot Removing, Ironing, and Finishing:

Identifying production defects by QCS and defects marked with a sticker. Then taken to the spot-cleaning area. When the apparel is cleaned with the help of hot water, steam, or chemical stain removers, then it goes for manual ironing and fishing process.

b. Final Inspection:

A final Quality control check is an inspection according to the buyer’s requirements. Sometimes it was done by the buyer agents. Final Inspection and quality checks are always checked manually.

c. Garments Packing:

Then, the garments are packed with the help of accessories. It packs here using the buyer’s instructed poly bag. Garment packing is done by automation or manual method.

d. Cartooning & Shipment:

After the garment’s packing, cartooning is done to reduce the damage to the garments. Every garment needs a cartoon to maintain buyers’ instructions. And then shipment starts. Most of the garment’s shipment is sent by the seaport to the buyer. In this way, the manufacturing process of the textile industry is completed.


Today, regular textile processing steps are changing. Technical Textiles and recycling fibers practices will replace our regular textile industry. Hope you get everything to abut manufacturing process of textile industry.

That’s much for today. Stay with us for Textile Details. We are going to write a blog for every individual portion to get a better idea of the stages in the textile manufacturing process

2 thoughts on “Complete 5 Textile Manufacturing Process in Details”

  1. I am not sure where you’re getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more.
    Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this info for my mission.


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