What is Winding? A Gateway of Fabric Manufacturing Process

Fahad Chowdhury

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The yarn obtained from spinning is lacking in quantity and quality for weaving. It has many imperfections such as thick places, thin places and slubs. These will cause difficulties in further operations and ultimately hamper the Textile Fiber Properties and Characteristics. Moreover, the yarn packages from the spinning section are inadequate in volume and require transfiguration into larger packages. To overcome these issues the yarn has to undergo a winding process.

In this content we will learn about the winding, objectives, types, formulas and applications.

What is winding?

Definition of Winding Process: Winding is a method of shifting yarn from one type of packaging to another to simplify further Procedure. The smaller yarn packages (usually hank, ring cop or cone) are transformed into bigger packages. Yarns which are poorly wound are rewound onto a fresh package during the win-ding process. 

Objective of winding:

  1. To remove objectionable faults from yarn which may affect subsequent processes and lead to a faulty fabric.
  2. To wind yarns with equal tension in order to unwind yarns in equal numbers during the next procedure. 
  3. To produce stable packages with suitable yarn length.
  4. To create a package suitable for shuttle i.e pirn.
  5. To facilitate subsequent processes of woven fabric production.

Types of winding: 

What is Winding

1. Precision winding:

Continuous convolution of yarns are placed near to each other on the packages in a parallel or near parallel fashion. Hence it allows to generate an immensely frequent bundle. 

Some properties of precision winding are given below:

  1. Reciprocating traverses are used to wind yarn. 
  2. Package is comparatively more dense. 
  3. Package is hard and more compact. 
  4. Package is less stable. 
  5. Rate of unwinding is low and the unwinding process is more complex. 

2. Random or Non-precision winding:

Package is made from an individual yarn that is placed over the packaging at a prominent helix angle in order to create tiers that pass each other and make a stable cone.

Some features of Non-precision winding are : 

  1. Package is wound with a reciprocating or rotating traverse. 
  2. Package is comparatively less dense. 
  3. Package is soft and less compact. 
  4. Package is extremely stable. 
  5. The pace of unwinding is good and the procedure is simple.   

Types of winding packages: 

Winding packages are of 3 kinds: 

  1. Parallel wound package : A number of yarn ends lie parallel to one another on the package. For example : warp beam. 
  2. Near parallel wound package : one or more ends lie near parallelly to the layer already existing on the package. For example : flanged bobbin, pirn. 
  3. Cross-wound package : One end placed over the packaging at a prominent helix angle in order to create tiers that pass each other and ensure better durability of the package. For example : cone, cheese.  

Passage diagram and production calculation of cone winding machine:

What is Winding? A Gateway of Fabric Manufacturing Process
Figure: Passage diagram of cone winding machine 

Some important conversions:

  • 36 inch = 3 feet = 1 yard 
  • 1 metre = 1.0936 yards 
  • 1  pound(lb) = 453.6 gram 
  • 1 lea = 120 yards 
  • 840 yards = 7 lea = 1 hank 
  • 1 metre = 39.37 inch
  • 1 inch = 2. 54 cm
  • 1 kg = 2.205 pound (lb) 
  • Tex × Ne = 590.5
What is Winding? A Gateway of Fabric Manufacturing Process

Production calculation of Winding:

Quality of Yarn in lb to be Wound

  1. Time Required = 1yhUeVhjOlE4GPMkDf10PFQ3yWYuQeHih0LYdg iqaqZCe clC6XwCIl5onPo 4nW33yHdrk2wPnLSqaBFf3gcciwyHfaX RUi8xVG98FhYAVjwL3DUZahMbw6ob5KbmQ lB9ZQHXr4J
                        Actual production in lbs/hr *No of Drum

Quantity of Yarn in Hank 

           =1yhUeVhjOlE4GPMkDf10PFQ3yWYuQeHih0LYdg iqaqZCe clC6XwCIl5onPo 4nW33yHdrk2wPnLSqaBFf3gcciwyHfaX RUi8xVG98FhYAVjwL3DUZahMbw6ob5KbmQ lB9ZQHXr4J

Actual production in hanks/hr * No of Drums

     Quantity of Yarn in lbs * Yarn Count 

                                    = ER7XltESkWmeNWxz6YglycMwo1oHYXChV4XJw0lKQWYAHQKFW4vBZuS HRUr4DXCkvWIDfwDOkfiPKygTjNCAYObpMxrXmxC1iCcIwZ2ggohA3BDiJExdr2ePZcQVU0B Eq61J Mot V

            Actual production in Hank * No of Drums

Total Length of Warp in Yards

                                     = jNVmlDz90bGBXhdu3FObCIh 9kGlPnnJyRneE0PON aOgh

Actual production in yds/hr * No of Machine

Calculated Yards

  1. Actual Production =  t3rGAnQB9kbGk7DdhQ8Jv6JXiVUBQNgJGNJpdL74QMKZTl8vOqkIESR4oTONtHZm9iyB6v0 i8Bq0Fw8fXCa1uA31ukFD5fl1BViPknBTmGGy8 mY2qdz0e3BYK4Mgvq6U pH2YuO6nX   * Efficiency


Calculated Hank

= llLPNyxMW3vdtMfyiYwphesMjJT7ZmkZj6mDfNijNPZI5WQ6 0tg4DDFtwHIuA8 86ttlBaVk40FT9QmaTWWtkEhbIS0nqG * Efficiency        

              Yarn Count

                                        =    Calculated Yards * Efficiency

  1. Actual Production =  Calculated Production * No of Drums * Efficiency 

                                                                  Actual Production 

  1. Production in Weight/shift =  KxzocmyDr1k4toJA GVoalRhxz9wB3Aw9E4ZjqMJy53JfFOl05GwczQei8jL5r5ph5IN94bd4D8iPdqOd1gfN4VS Y9 dbezvv o5sEan0JYMqlYs 0rQpTz dKfhSKJNvzOZDR Fd22  * 60 * 8                                                                                         Yarn Count (Ne)


                                             Target Production in kg 

  1. Time Required = DSN0gWyJUTQ 2htYSk Q Cr e bGdoAZPg9QBKdg2rwwVvDui7pcryTR4VVRlzNAcLnf9ussoWik5pMBHFBK aduwtoUi0108uVwbvdCkEc1gA5d538hEYDLimgYPI0n39OsojEtDDXR

                                             Production Rate

                                                                Quantity of Yarn to wound 

  1. No of Drums Required =kc8y42sASg vXbEzqTSV0AjKASq ev8 FOv9ryouzrwsVU2bOM9ryhW1qpQwBZN5l3G6enAcxtYn3dyCaF1ggQ7jetz4kYqb3wfKc C6l exyL7 J yDibvN9Sk4yp6aO2y3D0J2vCcZ

                                                  Time in hrs * Actual Production per hr per drum

  1. Quantity of Yarn to be wound = Quantity of Yarn in Cloth – Waste%
  1. Length of Yarn = Production of warping m/c per 8 hrs + Waste%

                                      Total Quantity of Weft in Hank per hour * No of Loom

  1. No of Spindles = xIGpDOYHn631zOg64SR37acd 7Bf5w qGljYbNiYZXO5GiCMMLB1MkgmjTRb1V6 W2 SX5sJEJbtzSYhoSQV0L 4okL5qG1d1 0u87y 6Q0hGEoFPmsYJjoudBhNSJzbz3KJ8bGTpAIo

                                       Actual Production in Hanks/Spindle/hour

                                        Actual Production

  1. Efficiency% =  E MqKQ1 kg1oHKmH1vNIiXbWuZsYjDynhMF8V4RAYqCgb7ZAumP13WZuG mOIAS0DKUxuy4MdsRA9Vv0y51 PAcwr8pwah9oTYO3L 4CoZECzsSuIWPSlLkdvZ2 0zZKnVdetG09y9c8    * 100%                                                                                        Calculated Production  


                                                                                           Length of Yarn in yard

  1. Weight of Yarn to be Wound on each bobbin = rlX48oZwIrJ6t1JaMQnbv8JNt9iQQYrZ gQFthkPTyE3Vve80LS9r6jIFXT3a3YIbslfro92uzoUHxm18Pyujt8X1bYjkyDZmOW0crg khzsWBakUr2A Hj32AsMCqf J F6mi2JCY9J

                                                                                             840 * Yarn Count (Ne)

  1.  Length of Yarn on each Bobbin = Wt. of Yarn on each Bobbin * Count (Ne) 

Types of winding machine :

What is Winding
  1. Cone winding machine: In the Textile industry , Cone winding machines are used for winding yarn onto conical shaped packages called cones.
  2. Cheese winding machine: Cheese winding Machine are used in the Textile industry to wind yarn on a cylindrical tube called cheese. 
  3. Flanged bobbin winding machine: Flanged bobbin winding machine is a kind of winding machine used in the Textile industry to wind yarn onto a flanged bobbin.  
  4. Pirn winding machine: Pirn winding machine is the winding machine used to wind yarn onto a pirn which are cylindrical bobbins holding weft yarn in a shuttle loom.  
  5. Cop winding machine: These types of machines are applied in the Textile sector to wound yarn onto cop. Cops are cylindrical shaped packages that are usually used in spinning mills for storage and subsequent processing.   
  6. Spool winding machine: The spool winding machine is used to wind yarn onto a spool or bobbins.  

Application :

Here are some applications of winding :

1. Yarn Preparation: Winding is essential for preparing yarn before subsequent processes like weaving or knitting. It ensures uniform tension and minimizes breakage during these processes.

2. Twist Setting: Winding allows for the control and adjustment of twists in the yarn. This is important for achieving the desired characteristics in the final fabric, such as strength, elasticity, and appearance.

3. Package Formation: Winding helps in creating well-formed and stable packages that are easy to handle and transport. These packages are used in various stages of textile production.

4. Dyeing and Finishing: Yarn wound onto dye packages facilitates even dyeing, ensuring uniform color distribution. Additionally, wound packages are suitable for subsequent finishing processes like sizing or twisting.

5. Quality Control: Winding enables inspection and removal of any defects or irregularities in the yarn. This contributes to maintaining the quality of the final textile product.

6. Efficiency and Productivity: Winding increases the efficiency of downstream processes by providing a continuous and uniform supply of yarn. It contributes to higher productivity in textile mills.

In summary, winding plays a critical role in yarn preparation, quality control, and overall efficiency in the textile manufacturing process.


  1. Weaving Preparatory Technology by Dr. N. Gokarneshan 
  2.  Handbook on Fabric Manufacturing    ( Grey Fabrics: Preparation, Weaving to Marketing ) by B Purushothama 
  3. Weaving: Conversion of Yarn to Fabric by P.R Lord, M.H. Mohamed
  4. Cotton Weaving by V. Gordeev, P. Volkov, I. Blinov, M. Svyatenko 
  5. https://textilelearner.net/winding-production-calculation/
  6. https://vdoc.pub/documents/weaving-preparation-technology-74446dea0fd0
  7. https://www.rbth.com/articles/2012/12/28/greater_thrust_needed_in_indo-russian_ties_21339
  8. https://website-4637890449927775026166-pawnshop.business.site/

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