The manufacturing process of textile industry has been a part of human civilization for centuries. But most people don’t know how it all comes together. It’s time you learned about the production process that goes into making your clothes. So, join me as I take you through the entire journey of Textile Fiber to Garments, from raw materials like cotton or wool to finished apparel products such as T-shirts or dresses.
Get ready for knowing the details manufacturing process of textile industry from fiber to garments manufacturing.
Manufacturing Process of Textile Industry:
- Source Fiber: Mainly textile manufacturing process begins with the harvesting of raw materials.
- Yarn Manufacturing: The fibers are then cleaned, sorted, and blended together to create yarns.
- Fabric Manufacturing: Yarn is made into fabric by weaving or knitting it on a loom.
- Wet Processing: Fabric is cut into smaller pieces for use in sewing projects as well as dyed different colors and patterns.
- Garments Manufacturing: Sewing the parts of fabric together and check Quality Inspection and shipment.
1. Source Fiber:
The manufacturing process of textile industry begins with the cultivation of natural textile fibers. Harvesting raw fiber and sourcing is the first step in the production of textiles. Fibers are extracted from plant, animal, or mineral sources and processed into a continuous strand called yarn.
The different types of fibers. Such as include: cotton, wool, silk, etc. But today man-made or synthetic fibers are also used in the textile manufacturing process. Such as polyester, rayon nylon.
2. Spinning or Yarn Manufacturing:
Yarn manufacturing is the process of turning raw materials into yarn for use in knitting, weaving, or crocheting. Raw materials are sorted, cleaned, and mixed together to create the final yarn or thread.
Yarn is done by spinning together fibers such as wool, cotton, or synthetic fibers. Yarn manufacturing is the process of turning raw materials into yarn to be used in knitting, weaving, and crocheting.
Yarn can also be called thread when it’s used for sewing purposes. The yarn has been around since prehistoric times and was originally made from animal hair that people collected from animals they hunted.
Today, there are many different types of yarn on the market. Because, textile manufacturers have found ways to make them out of other things like bamboo, hemp, or basalt!
Yarn can also be made from recycled materials. Examples as polyethylene and plastic. Yarn manufacturing is a complex process that takes place in different factories depending on the type of yarn being created.
But the main theme is always similar.
The first step in yarn manufacturing is raw material preparation. Raw materials must be sorted, cleaned, and mixed together to create the final textile product. Manufacturers of wool or cotton must remove any debris that might contaminate a batch, while those who work with bamboo need to strip away its outer layer before spinning it into sewing thread for knitting projects. Synthetic yarn production are turned into petroleum-based products, such as polyesters and rayon.
After the raw materials are prepared, they’re spun into yarn in a process called spinning. Spinning is done by using machines with steel bobbins that have been wound with fiber or spinning material known as roving which can come from natural sources like cotton or wool.
The machine winds the roving around a bobbin and then pulls it between two rollers that turn at different speeds to create the yarn. Some machines can also “twist” in order to add strength and elasticity to the final product.
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3. Fabric Manufacturing Process:
The next step is the weaving or fabric manufacturing process. It is done by taking yarn from one machine and transferring it to another machine in order to create a length of fabric. Weaving is done by machines that turn the yarn into lengths, which are then fed onto a loom with different types of threads or colors on specific sections called harnesses.
The warp (lengths) must be precisely fitted between the two sides of heddles before the loom is turned on and the weaving process begins. Once a length of textile fabric has been created, it’s removed from the looms and finally sewn together to create a finished product!
Weaving is done by machines that turn yarn into lengths which are then fed onto a loom with different types of threads or colors on specific sections called harnesses. The warp must be precisely fitted between two sides of heddles before the loom turns on and the weaving process begins. Once a length of fabric has been created, it’s removed from the looms and finally sewn together to create a finished fabric.
4 types of fabric have been produced in Garments Industry. Such as:
4. Wet processing:
Fabric wet processing is a process used to dye and finish textiles. The dyeing process involves the application of colorants to fabric in order for it to become colored. Finishing may involve adding additional properties such as anti-pill, soil release, or flame-retardant treatments that are chemically applied before packaging and shipping.
Textile Printing includes the use of inkjet printing on fabrics like T-shirts, sweatshirts, aprons, children’s clothes, etc., screen printing on various types of clothing including shirts and hats, etc.; digital textile printing which uses computers/plotters to print onto fabric; flexography which prints onto plastic film; Gravure Printing which prints with engraved cylinders onto paper; Dye Sublimation Printing where heat-activated chemicals are transferred onto a carrier medium from an inkjet printer.
There are several types of textile finishing, which can be done by hand or machine. Dyeing involves the application of colorants to fabric in order for it to become colored. Finishing may involve adding additional properties such as anti-pill, soil release, or flame-retardant treatments that are chemically applied before packaging and shipping. Printing a Dye Sublimation Printing where heat-activated chemicals are transferred onto a carrier medium from an inkjet printer.
5. Garment Manufacturing Process
a. Garments Design:
Garments manufacturing starts from the Design. It could be provided by the buyer or need textile design in the designing section. When garments are received from the buyer, garments design starts with the technical sheet. These processes are done manually and automated.
b. Pattern Making:
According to the garments design, technical sheet, and artwork, the pattern all garments are made by the pattern master. But today It could be done by the automated machine. The pattern is a hard paper on which sketch or draw the different components of apparel by standards body measurements. It’s often known as block pattern or basic block.
c. Sample Making:
After making a perfect pattern, a complete apparel sample is made to testify to the buyer’s requirements. According to the required specification, the sample is approved by the buyer, then it’s called the approved sample. The objective of making a perfect sample is to examine the detailed instruction is correct or not for complete apparel.
d. Production Pattern Making:
The counter sample is made for bulk production and followed by the approved sample. In Production pattern takes an additional extra measurement with exact or actual measurement is known as allowance. Allowance is important for bulk production, it could be adding manually or using the computer. It’s often known as a working pattern.
In bulk garments, production grading is an important issue to maintain the size ratio of the production. It’s graded according to the buyer’s instruction. Grading is the stepwise increase or decrease of the block or master pattern to produce different sizes and patterns.
f. Marker Making:
Marker is a thin paper that contains every part of apparel. Marker making helps to produce the cutting process smoothly. It could be done manually and by using automation.
g. Fabric Spreading:
Fabric spreading is one of the crucial parts of the garments production process. Specific guidelines are followed during the fabric laying process. Fabric spreading is known as fabric lying.
It’s done after a process named fabric relaxing.
The main objective of Fabric relaxing is to relax and contract the fabrics. So that it could be ready for the garments production process after the complete fabric manufacturing. It helps to prevent fabric strain at several stages and reduce fabric shrinkage.
Fabric spread on a long table to cut the fabric properly. Currently, most garment factories use fabric spreading by automation. But still, it requires skilled manpower to spread fabric properly.
Therefore, any fabric fault from the production line is detected during the cost-effective fabric spreading process.
h. Fabric Cutting:
Fabrics need to be cut according to the marker. It is the most essential action in the cutting room. The procedure starts with fabric lying, marking, and then cutting. “Once Fabric cut, there is no turning back,” as the saying goes.
So, if there occur any problems in the cutting; it affects the sewing process. The fabric Cutting process is done with a straight and sharp knife. It could be a manual or computerized system.
i. Cutting Parts Sorting and Bundling:
After the errorless cutting, all parts are short out according to the bundle tag.
The bundle tag represents the fabric component bundle to identify the component. It needs to maintain the maximize production. In a single garments production process numbering, sorting and bundle may not mandatory. Then it goes for bundling to send these to start the next process. This process must do manually.
Sewing is the heart of the garments section. All cutting components of fabric are joined by sewing together. After gathering all components of garments went for sewing. Today it’s done manually and depends on the worker’s skills.
k. Garments Inspection:
Final Garments inspection is an important part of Quality control or QC. The best QC section is the representation of the best garment factory. After complete apparel or garments, an inspection is made to find out the fault of the garments. It’s done manually. Often garments factories set a commodity standard, to measure production output. And QC is the most complicated section where the quality of a garment could define by the inspection.
l. Spot Removing, Ironing, and Finishing:
Identifying production defects by QCS, and defects mark with a sticker. Then taken to the spot-cleaning area. Where the apparel is cleaned with the help of hot water, steam, or chemical stain removers. Then it goes for manual ironing and fishing process.
m. Final Inspection:
A final Quality control check is an inspection according to the buyer’s requirements. Sometimes it was done by the buyer agents. Final Inspection and quality checks are always checked manually.
n. Garments Packing:
Then the garments are packed with the help of accessories. It packs here by using the buyer’s instructed poly bag. Garment’s packing is done by automation or manual method.
o. Cartooning & Shipment:
After the garment’s packing cartooning is done for reducing the damages of garments. Every garment needs to the cartoon by maintaining buyers’ instruction. And then shipment starts. Most of the garment’s shipment is sent by the seaport to the buyer.
That’s much for today. Stay with us Textile Details. We are going to write a blog for every individual portion to get a better idea of stages in textile manufacturing process.